With chapters prepared by some of the largest petrochemical and petroleum companies in the world, Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Yomen Atassi and others published Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes. Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Robert A. Meyers and others published Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes.
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Handbook of petrochemicals production processes/ Robert A. Meyers, editor-in- chief.- New York: McGraw-Hill, 1 v. (various pagings): ill., maps. Editorial Reviews. Review. Although described as a handbook, this work is more an encyclopedic description of 53 industrial process technologies for producing. Handbook of Petrochemicals Production, Second Edition [Robert A. Meyers] on A complete guide to petrochemicals production processes―fully revised to.
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McGraw-Hill Education: Robert A. Meyers earned his Ph. He has published in Science, the Journal of the American Chemical Society, and Chemical Engineering; has written or edited 12 scientific books; and holds more than 20 chemical patents.
handbook petrochemicals production processes PDFs / eBooks
A more detailed biography of Dr. Meyers appears in Who's Who in the World. With chapters prepared by some of the largest petrochemical and petroleum companies in the world, Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes provides in-depth process detail for commercial evaluation and covers plastics and polymers such as ethylene and polyethylene; propylene; ethylbenzene, styrene, and polystyrenes; vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride; and many others.
The main characteristics of the zeolites are given in Table 1.
In order to determine the influence of the external surface acidity on catalytic isopropylation of benzene over. The liquid effluent samples were collected periodically in a cold trap and analysed offline in a Varian GC equipped with an FID detector and a Supelcowax capillary column.
Average diameter. Propene was pumped as a liquefied gas 1. Before the alkylation reaction was started. When the desired pressure 3.
All these reagents were used without further manipulations. The reaction conditions for catalytic test were the following: Preliminary alkylation experiments were carried out to ascertain that under these conditions the process was not controlled by mass transfer limitations external and intraparticle diffusion.
Desorption temperature. Benzene was supplied by Prolabo A. The reactor was charged with the chosen amount of catalyst always within a particle size of 0.
MCM structure. Under these conditions the reaction takes place in the liquid phase. Catalytic Experiments Alkylation of benzene with propene or ethene was performed in a computer-controlled down-flow fixed-bed stainless steel tubular microreactor.
Beta zeolite appears to be one of the most efficient catalysts and MCM also shows a surprisingly good behaviour on the basis of a single experiment. Similar results have been claimed for MCM22 zeolite in patent literature 8.
Meters Robert A. Handbook of petrochemicals production processes
The differences in textural properties. The deactivation in Beta zeolite can be related to the formation of propene oligomers in the channels. The formation of n-propylbenzene is undesired since the isomer is difficult and costly to separate from the cumene stream. Finally this ion is attacked by a free or weakly adsorbed benzene or isopropylbenzene Under some reaction conditions.
The lower microporosity and higher mesoporosity of Beta zeolite can be attributed to the agglomeration of very small crystallite size as well as a partial destruction of the zeolite lattice. It has been shown that Beta zeolite performs well in liquid-phase alkylation with both ethene and propene 22 and excellent efficiencies in benzene alkylation have been reported Cumene can also suffer a consecutive alkylation reaction.
The catalyst particle size was 0. The presence of a higher amount of Lewis acid sites in Beta zeolite. A recent paper 24 compares catalytic activity of MWW with Beta and other zeolites. In this way.
Since alkylation reactions are catalysed by the acid sites of zeolites This result can be explained by taking into account that in the case of MCM only the sites pointing to the external surface. Similar results have been obtained on SSZ Zeolite MCM does not show deactivation.
It can be seen that even if both zeolites show high activity. On the other hand. Beta zeolite appears to have a slightly higher initial activity. The differences cannot be explained by considering only the crystallinity and structure of the samples..
In our case.
These species can remain strongly adsorbed and can be responsible for the observed deactivation. It should be taken into account that the external acid sites that can be reached by DTBPy are only a rather small fraction of the total acid sites presented in MCM In these cavities the diffusion of the products.
In agreement with previous work In order to prove the role of the external acid sites on the catalytic performance of MCM Propene conversion with Beta d and MCM j zeolites under the following reaction conditions: ZSM-5 zeolite appears to be a poor catalyst for the alkylation of benzene with ethene in the liquid phase.
Benzene alkylation with propene with MCM and Beta zeolites. The selectivity to cumene and to oligomers decreases with increasing conversion and temperature.
The main secondary products observed are diisopropyl benzene isomers. Since ethene is less reactive than propene. Beta presents a higher diisopropylbenzene selectivity.
If this is the case. Beta is more active than MCM for ethylbenzene production. MCM22 is more selective to the formation of diisopropylbenzenes. Comparing Beta and MCM zeolites we can conclude in general terms that the results are quite similar to those obtained in alkylation with propene.
Reaction conditions: For the TOS considered here.
Handbook of petrochemicals production processes
Often a negligible amount of other compounds. Alkylation of Benzene with Ethene In Fig. The results presented in Fig..
At the lowest temperature.
The selectivity to the different products. This fact could be related with differences in activation energy for the transalkylation reaction between the two zeolites. The selectivity to cumene is quite high for both zeolites. This reactant was chosen because of the easy diffusion through the 10 MR windows. Since alkylation reactions are catalysed by the acid sites of zeolites 26 , we could expect that the higher the concentration of Brnsted acid sites in a zeolite the higher the alkylation activity should be.
However, in this case, although MCM presents a higher concentration of acid sites, its activity is slightly lower Fig. This result can be explained by taking into account that in the case of MCM only the sites pointing to the external surface, i. Indeed, it has been reported 24 that the diffusion of cumene in the pores of MCM is hampered by a high energy barrier. Moreover, it has been presented 27 by means of molecular dynamic simulation that even benzene presents a low diffusivity in either of the two pore systems of the MWW structure.
On the other hand, the framework of Beta zeolite, with 12membered ring channels, presents lower steric hindrance and both benzene and cumene can diffuse without great difficulty.
Nevertheless, if the crystal size is too large, cumene diffusion can control, at least partially, the rate of the global process even in zeolites with 12 MR pores like Beta Under some reaction conditions, it can be seen Fig. Zeolite MCM does not show deactivation, at least under the reaction conditions studied here.
The deactivation in Beta zeolite can be related to the formation of propene oligomers in the channels. These species can remain strongly adsorbed and can be responsible for the observed deactivation.
Since it was claimed that only the external acid sites are active in the case of MCM, the formation of oligomers in the 10 MR cavities should not affect the activity.
Propene conversion with Beta d and MCM j zeolites under the following reaction conditions: total pressure, 3. In order to explain the performance of MCM we should assume that a significant number of acid sites are placed in the large half cavities or chalices opened to the exterior at the termination of the crystallites Fig.
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In these cavities the diffusion of the products, as well as the diffusion of the coke precursors, is easier and faster and therefore the deactivation is slower. It should be taken into account that the external acid sites that can be reached by DTBPy are only a rather small fraction of the total acid sites presented in MCM Then, when the sample containing adsorbed DTBPy was used to catalyse the alkylation of benzene with propene, it can be seen Fig.
On the other hand, and in order to show that the internal acid sites were still present, the DTBPy deactivated sample was used to catalyse the isomerization of 1-hexene.Prepared by leading petrochemical licensing firms, Handbook of Petrochemicals Production Processes, Second Edition clearly explains the powerful techniques used to create the most economically important chemicals in the world.
Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! You can change your ad preferences anytime. In this way, propene is protonated by a Brnsted acid site and a carbenium ion is formed. Zeolite MCM does not show deactivation, at least under the reaction conditions studied here.
The differences in textural properties, i. The book reflects these factors, plus the increase in residue conversion; hydrocracking evolving as a primary conversion process; and hydrotreating increasing as a way to treat virgin and cracked middle distillate streams. Er Bali Pandhare. site Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go. The formation of n-propylbenzene is undesired since the isomer is difficult and costly to separate from the cumene stream.