Staff credits: The people who made up the lmroduction to Academic Writing team, representing . 3. Model: Computer-Written Assignment Introducing Myself. Introduction to Academic Writing (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 3 ) by Ann Hogue, , available at Book. The Third Edition of Introduction to Academic Writing, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue, continues in the tradition of helping students to master the standard organizational patterns of the paragraph and the basic concepts of essay writing. Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition.

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Get this from a library! Introduction to academic writing. Level 3, Answer key. [ Alice Oshima; Ann Hogue]. 37 Chapter 3 Supporting Details: Facts, Quotations, 39 and Statistics Facts versus Opinions. 59 Funnel Introduction 60 Attention-Getting Introduction. .. Preface Writing Academic English, Fourth Edition, is a comprehensive rhetoric and sentence Median Earnings and Tax Payments by Level of Education, Introduction to Academic Writing (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 3 ) (3rd Edition): Ann Hogue, Alice Oshima: Books.

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The E-mail message field is required. Please enter the message. Please verify that you are not a robot. Would you also like to submit a review for this item? You already recently rated this item. Your rating has been recorded. Write a review Rate this item: Knowing what you want to get out of a reading assignment helps you determine how to approach it and how much time to spend on it.

It also helps you stay focused during those occasional moments when it is late, you are tired, and when relaxing in front of the television sounds far more appealing than curling up with a stack of journal articles. Sometimes your purpose is simple.

You might just need to understand the reading material well enough to discuss it intelligently in class the next day. However, your purpose will often go beyond that. For instance, you might also read to compare two texts, to formulate a personal response to a text, or to gather ideas for future research.

Introduction to Academic Writing (The Longman Academic Writing Series, Level 3)

Here are some questions to ask to help determine your purpose: How did my instructor frame the assignment? Often instructors will tell you what they expect you to get out of the reading. For example: Read Chapter 2 and come to class prepared to discuss current theories related to conducting risk assessments.

Read Chapter 5 and think about how you could apply these guidelines to the first stages of onsite patient assessment. How deeply do I need to understand the reading? However, for some reading assignments, you may be expected to form a general understanding but not necessarily master the content.

Again, pay attention to how your instructor presents the assignment. How does this assignment relate to other course readings or to concepts discussed in class? Your instructor may make some of these connections explicitly, but if not, try to draw connections on your own. Needless to say, it helps to take detailed notes both when in class and when you read. How might I use this text again in the future?

If you are assigned to read about a topic that has always interested you, your reading assignment might help you develop ideas for a future research paper. Some reading assignments provide valuable tips or summaries worth bookmarking for future reference. Think about what you can take from the reading that will stay with you.

Improving Your Comprehension You have blocked out time for your reading assignments and set a purpose for reading. Now comes the challenge: making sure you actually understand all the information you are expected to process. Some of your reading assignments will be fairly straightforward. Others, however, will be longer or more complex, so you will need a plan for how to handle them.

For any expository writing—that is, nonfiction, informational writing—your first comprehension goal is to identify the main points and relate any details to those main points.

Because post-secondary-level texts can be challenging, you will also need to monitor your reading comprehension.

That is, you will need to stop periodically and assess how well you understand what you are reading. Finally, you can improve comprehension by taking time to determine which strategies work best for you and putting those strategies into practice. Identifying the Main Points In your courses, you will be reading a wide variety of materials, including the following: Textbooks. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. Nonfiction trade books.

These are less likely to include the study features found in textbooks. Popular magazines, newspapers, or web articles. These are usually written for a general audience. Scholarly books and journal articles. These are written for an audience of specialists in a given field. Regardless of what type of expository text you are assigned to read, your primary comprehension goal is to identify the main point: the most important idea that the writer wants to communicate and often states early on.

Finding the main point gives you a framework to organize the details presented in the reading and relate the reading to concepts you have learned in class or through other reading assignments. Some texts make that task relatively easy. Textbooks, for instance, include the aforementioned features as well as headings and subheadings intended to make it easier for students to identify core concepts.

Graphic features such as sidebars, diagrams, and charts help students understand complex information and distinguish between essential and inessential points.

When you are assigned to read from a textbook, be sure to use available comprehension aids to help you identify the main points. Trade books and popular articles may not be written specifically for an educational purpose; nevertheless, they also include features that can help you identify the main ideas. Trade books. Reading chapter titles and any subtitles within the chapter will help you get a broad sense of what is covered. It also helps to read the beginning and ending paragraphs of a chapter closely.

These paragraphs often sum up the main ideas presented. Popular articles. Reading the headings and introductory paragraphs carefully is crucial. In magazine articles, these features along with the closing paragraphs present the main concepts. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general details.

At the far end of the reading difficulty scale are scholarly books and journal articles. Because these texts are aimed at a specialized, highly educated audience, the authors presume their readers are already familiar with the topic.

The language and writing style is sophisticated and sometimes dense. When you read scholarly books and journal articles, try to apply the same strategies discussed earlier for other types of text. Headings and subheadings can help you understand how the writer has organized support for the thesis.

Additionally, academic journal articles often include a summary at the beginning, called an abstract, and electronic databases include summaries of articles too.

Monitoring Your Comprehension Finding the main idea and paying attention to text features as you read helps you figure out what you should know. Just as important, however, is being able to figure out what you do not know and developing a strategy to deal with it. Textbooks often include comprehension questions in the margins or at the end of a section or chapter. As you read, stop occasionally to answer these questions on paper or in your head.

Use them to identify sections you may need to reread, read more carefully, or ask your instructor about later. Even when a text does not have built-in comprehension features, you can actively monitor your own comprehension. Try these strategies, adapting them as needed to suit different kinds of texts: Summarize. At the end of each section, pause to summarize the main points in a few sentences.

If you have trouble doing so, revisit that section. Ask and answer questions. When you begin reading a section, try to identify two to three questions you should be able to answer after you finish it.

Write down your questions and use them to test yourself on the reading. If you cannot answer a question, try to determine why. Is the answer buried in that section of reading but just not coming across to you? Or do you expect to find the answer in another part of the reading? Do not read in a vacuum.

Look for opportunities to discuss the reading with your classmates. Many instructors set up online discussion forums or blogs specifically for that purpose.

For this reason, the topic sentence is a helpful guide to both the writer and the reader. The writer can see what information to include and what information to exclude. The reader can see what the paragraph is going to be about and is therefore better prepared to understand it.

For example, in the model paragraph on gold, the topic sentence alerts the reader to look for two characteristics. Here are three important points to remember about a topic sentence. A topic sentence is a complete sentence; that is, it contains at least one subject and one verb. The following are not complete sentences because they do not have verbs: Driving on freeways. How to register for college classes. The rise of indie films.! A topic sentence contains both a topic and a controlling idea.

It names the topic and then limits the topic to a specific area to be discussed in the space of a single paragraph. A topic sentence is the most general statement in the paragraph because it gives only the main idea. It does not give any specific details. A topic sentence is like the name of a particular course on a restaurant menu.

When you order food in a restaurant, you want to know more about a particular course than just "meat" or "soup" or "salad. Potato salad? Mixed green salad? Fruit salad? However, you do not necessarily want to know all the ingredients.

Similarly, a reader wants to know generally what to expect in a paragraph, but he or she does not want to learn all the details in the first sentence.

Oshima Alice, Hogue Ann. Introduction to Academic Writing Level 3

Following is a general statement that could serve as a topic sentence. The Arabic origin of many English words is not always obvious.

The following sentence, on the other hand, is too specific. It could serve as a sup- porting sentence but not as a topic sentence. This sentence is too general.

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English has been influenced by other languages. Position The topic sentence is usually but not always the first sentence in a paragraph. Readers who are used to the English way of writing want to know what they will read about as soon as they begin reading. Synonyms Synonyms. For example, the words stingy and frugal both mean "careful with money. Similarly, a person wants to be slender but not skinny, aggressive but not pushy. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all.

Sometimes a topic sentence comes at the end. In this case, the paragraph often begins with a series of examples. Other paragraphs may begin with a series of facts, and the topic sentence at the end is the conclusion from these facts. By the same year, the first human will have been successfully cloned. Genetic therapy will be able to manipulate genes for abilities, intelligence, and hair, eye, and skin color. By , most diseases will be able to be diagnosed and treated at home, and by , cancer and heart disease will have been wiped out.

These are just a few examples of the medical miracles that are expected in the next few decades. Remember that a topic sentence is a complete sentence and is neither too general nor too specific. Write best TS for "best topic sentence" on the line next to it. Step 2 Decide what is wrong with the other sentences. They may be too general, or they may be too specific, or they may be incomplete sentences.

Write too general, too specific, or incomplete on the lines next to them. The first one has been done for you as an example. A lunar eclipse is an omen of a coming disaster.

Longman Academic Writing Series

Superstitions have been around forever. People hold many superstitious beliefs about the moon. Is made of green cheese. The 11istory of astronomy is interesting. Ice age people recorded the appearance of new moons by making scratches in animal bones. For example, Stonehenge in Britain, built years ago to track the movement of the sun. Ancient people observed and recorded lunar and solar events in different ways.

It is hard to know which foods are safe to eat nowadays. In some large ocean fish, there are high levels of mercury. Undercooked chicken and hamburger may carry E. Not to mention mad cow disease. Food safety is an important issue. Hybrid automobiles more economical to operate than gasoline-powered cars. The new hybrid automobiles are very popular. Hybrid cars have good fuel economy because a computer under the hood decides to run the electric motor, the small gasoline engine, or the two together.

The new hybrid automobiles are popular because of their fuel economy. The North American Catawba Indians of the Southeast and the Tlingit of the Northwest both see the rainbow as a kind of bridge between heaven and earth. A rainbow seen from an airplane is a complete circle. Many cultures interpret rainbows in positive ways. Rainbows are beautiful. The belief that you can find a pot of gold at a rainbow's end. Remember that the topic sentence is the most genyral statement in a paragraph.

Read the following scrambled paragraphs and decide which sentence is the topic sentence. Write TS on the line next to that sentence. Other capabilities include word processing, spreadsheets, and e-mail.

A voice recorder that uses a built-in microphone and speaker works like a tape recorder. Basic tools include a calendar to keep track of your appointments, an address and phone number book, to-do lists, and a calculator.

MP3 playback lets you listen to digital music files, and a picture viewer lets you look at digital photos. Most personal digital assistants PDAs have tools for basic tasks as well as for multimedia functions. A few models also include a built-in digital camera and keyboard.

Twelve years after Sputnik, the United States caught up by becoming the first nation to land a man on the moon. The Europeans have joined the competition, vowing to land European astronauts on the moon by and on Mars by The number of nations competing in the "space race" has grown since the early days of space exploration. China joined the competition in when it launched Shenzhou 5.

Initially, the former Soviet Union took the lead when it sent the first man into Earth orbit in the spaceship Sputnik in For almost 50 years, the United States and Russia were the only competitors in the contest to explore space using manned spacecraft.

Another important change was that people had the freedom to live and work wherever they wanted. The earliest significant change was for farming families, who were no longer isolated.

The final major change brought by the automobile was the building of superhighways, suburbs, huge shopping centers, and theme parks such as Disney World in Florida. The automobile revolutionized the way of life in the United States. The automobile enabled them to drive to towns and cities comfortably and conveniently.

In fact, people could work in a busy metropolitan city and dlive home to the quiet suburbs. In time, this melted part rises as magma. The formation of a volcanic emption is a dramatic selies of events. As the plate" sinks, friction and Earth's heat cause part of it to melt.

The magma produces heat, steam, and pressure. First of all, most volcanoes are fGlIDed where two plates collide. Then one of the plates is forced under the other and sinks.

When the heat, steam, and pressure from the magma finally reach the surface of Earth, a volcanic emption occurs. The topic names the subject of the paragraph. The controlling idea limits Sentence or controls the topic to a specific area that you can discuss in the space of a single paragraph. The reader immediately lmows that this paragraph will discuss how easy it is to prepare convenience foods and perhaps give some examples canned soup, frozen dinners, and so on.

A topic sentence should not have controlling ideas that are unrelated. The three parts of the following controlling idea are too unrelated for a single paragraph.

They require three separate paragraphs and perhaps more to explain fully. GOOD Independent films are characterized by experimental techniques.

Cl'ICE '2. Circle the topic and underline the controlling idea in each of the following sentences. Identifying the Parts of a Topic Sentence 1. Wanyreligious rules arose from the healthneeds-oLancienLtimes.

Juxlrrytp' own an automobile in a large city-: CT1CE 3 A. Write good topic sentences for the following paragraphs. Remember to include both a topic and a controlling idea. Writing Topic Sentences Paragraph 1 English speakers relaxing at home, for example, may put on kimonos, which is a Japanese word. English speakers who live in a warm climate may take an afternoon siesta on an outdoor patio without realizing that these are Spanish words. In their gardens, they may enjoy the fragrance of jasmine flowers, a word that came into English from Persian.

They may even relax on a chaise while snacking on yogurt, words of French and Turkish origin, respectively. At night, they may shampoo their hair and put on pajamas, words from the Hindi language of India. Paragraph 2 In European universities, students are not required to attend classes. In fact, professors in Germany generally do not know the names of the students enrolled in their courses. In the United States, however, students are required to attend all classes and may be penalized if they do not.

Furthermore, in the European system, students usually take just one comprehensive examination at the end of their entire four or five years of study. In the North American system, on the other hand, students usually have numerous quizzes, tests, and homework assignments, and they almost always have to take a final examination in each course at the end of each semester.

Cbapter I I Paragraph Structure n Paragraph 3 For example, the Eskimos, living in a treeless region of snow and ice, sometimes build temporary homes out of thick blocks of ice.

People who live in deserts, on the other hand, use the most available materials, mud or clay, which provide good insulation from the heat. In Northern Europe, Russia, and other areas of the world where forests are plentiful, people usually construct their homes out of wood. In the islands of the South Pacific, where there is an abundant supply of bamboo and palm, people use these tough, fibrous plants to build their homes.

On a piece of paper, write two or three topic sentences for each of the following topics. In other words, give two or three controlling ideas for the same topic.

Example Topic: Using a cell phone while driving can be dangerous. There are certain rules of cell phone manners that everyone should know. Cell phones have changed the way we communicate. Topics Movies Your home town Word processors Advertising c. With your classmates, choose three topics that interest you as a group.

Write a topic sentence for each topic. Be sure to include a controlling idea. Supporting Sentences Supporting sentences explain or prove the topic sentence.

One of the biggest problems in student writing is that student writers often fail to support their ideas adequately. They need to use specific details to be thorough and convincing. There are several kinds of specific supporting details: Step 1 Read Paragraphs A and B about red-light running. Notice the different specific supporting details that have been added to Paragraph B.

Supporting Step 2 Locate the topic sentence in Paragraph B. Circle the topic and Sentences underline the controlling idea. Step 3 Which supporting sentences in Paragraph B contain the kinds of details listed below?

Give the sentence numbers of each kind. An example: Paragraph without Support Red-Light Running Although some people think that red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, I it can, in fact, become a deadly crime.

Red-light runners cause accidents all the time. Sometimes people are seriously injured and even killed. It is especially a problem in rush hour traffic. Everyone is in a hurry to get home, so drivers run red lights everywhere. The police do not do much about it because they are too busy. The only time they pay attention is when there is an accident, and then it is too late.

In conclusion, running a red light is a serious offense. Paragraph B: Paragraph with Support Red-Light Running "!

Although some people think red-light running is a minor traffic violation that is no worse than jaywalking, it can, in fact, become a deadly crime. ERed-light runners are seldom caught. Other types of support-facts, statistics, and quotations-are explained in Chapter 3. Examples Examples are perhaps the easiest kind of supporting detail to use because you can often take examples from your own knowledge and experience.

You don't have to search the library or the Internet for supporting material. Furthermore, examples make your writing lively and interesting, and your reader is more likely to remem- ber your point if you support it with a memorable example. Words and phrases that introduce examples include for example,for instance, and such as. See Transition Signals on pages in Chapter 2 for more information. Red Light Running. Cbapter 11 I Paragraph Structure 13 MODEE Language and Perception Paragraph II possess the same physical organs for sensing the w Supported with earing,noses for smelling, skin for feeling, and Examp'es n of the world depends to a great extent on the rding to a famous hypothesis3 proposed by lingu.

Edward enjamin Lee Whorf. They hypothesized that language is like a pair of eyeglasses through which we "see" the world in a particular way. A classic example of the relationship between language and perception is the word snow. Eskimo languages have as many as 32 different words for snow. For instance, the Eskimos have different words for falling snow, snow on the ground, snow packed as hard as ice, slushy snow, wind-driven snow, and what we might call "cornmeal" snow.

The ancient Aztec languages of Mexico, in contrast, used only one word to mean snow, cold, and ice. Thus, if the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is correct and we can perceive only things that we have words for, the Aztecs perceived snow, cold, and ice as one and the same phenomenon.

What is the main idea of this paragraph? Underline the part of the topic sentence that expresses the main idea. What examples does the writer use to support this idea? Put brackets [ around them. What words and phrases introduce the examples?

Circle them. The Concluding Sentence A concluding sentence serves two purposes: It signals the end of the paragraph. It leaves the reader with the most important ideas to remember.

It can do this in two ways: For single paragraphs, especially long ones, a concluding sentence is helpful to the reader because it is a reminder of the important points. However, a concluding sentence is not needed for every paragraph in a multiparagraph essay. You may want to begin your concluding sentence with one of the signals in the list on page You may also end a paragraph without a formal signal or perhaps by using an expression like those in the column on the right.

In brief, Therefore, There can be no doubt that. In conclusion, Thus, These examples show that. Indeed, To sum up, We can see that In short, Notes 1. Many writing teachers think In conclusion and In summary are overused and so will not want you to use them.

Do not use the phrase At last as an end-of-paragraph signal. At last means "at the end of a long period of time," as in this sentence: At last, you've come home. The models that follow demonstrate the two ways of writing a concluding sen- tence.

As you read them, determine which concluding sentence summarizes the main points and which concluding sentence repeats the topic sentence in different words. In the old days, the local drugstore had one rack display' maybe five or six basic kinds of cards. You could walk into the store and choose an appropriate card in five minutes or less. Nowadays, however, t e display space for greeting cards is as big as a soccer field, and it may take an hour or two to hunt down exactly the right card with exactly the right message.

There are at least 30 categories of birthday cards alone: There are cards for getting ajob, for retiring from a job, for acquiring a pet, for losing a pet, for becoming engaged, for breaking up. There are also greeting cards to send for no reason-"Thinking of you" or "Just because" cards.

The newest type of card is the "encouragement card. In short, there is now a greeting card for every possible life event and for a few nonevents as well.

A end from the Hawaiian island uai explains how the naupaka flower, lower tha s on beaches ; got its unusual shape. The flower looks like alf a small. The legend says that the marriage of two young lovers on the island was opposed by both sets of parents. The parents found the couple together on a beach one day, and to prevent them from being together, one of the families moved to the mountains, separating the young couple forever. As a result, the naupaka flower separated into two halves; one half moved to the mountains, and the other half stayed near the beach.

This story is a good example of a legend invented by native people to interpret the world around them. Writing Technique Questions 1. In which paragraph does the concluding sentence summarize the main points of the paragraph, which are not specifically stated in the topic sentence?

In which paragraph does the concluding sentence paraphrase repeat in different words the topic sentence? Circle the conclusion signals in each paragraph. Never introduce a new idea in the concluding sentence. This is a new idea. Step 2 Add a good concluding sentence to each paragraph. You may either Writing paraphrase the topic sentence or summarize the main points.

Concluding Sentences Step 3 Practice using end-of-paragraph signals by starting each concluding sentence with one. Paragraph 1 You can be a good conversationalist by being a good listener. When you are conversing with someone, pay close attention to the speaker's words while looking at his or her face. Show your interest by smiling and nodding. Furthermore, do not interrupt while someone is speaking; it is impolite to do so. If you have a good story, wait until the speaker is finished.

Also, watch your body language; it can affect your communication whether you are the speaker or the listener. For instance, do not sit slumped in a chair or make nervous hand and foot movements. Be relaxed and bend your body slightly forward to show interest in the person and the conversation. They feel buried under the large number of messages they receive daily. In addition to telephone calls, office workers receive dozens of e-mail and voice mail messages daily.

In one company, in fact, managers receive an average of messages a day. Because they do not have enough time to respond to these messages during office hours, it is common for them to do so in the evenings or on weekends at home. Review These are the important points covered in this chapter: It clearly states the main idea of the paragraph but does not include specific details. Writing Practice In the back of the book is an appendix outlining the steps in the writing process Appendix A, pages Following the writing process steps will help you write successfully.

Your instructor may direct you to follow some or all of them. Writing a Paragraph Step 1 Begin with a topic sentence that you wrote in Practice 3. Write several supporting sentences.

Include at least one specific example. End with a concluding sentence. It is on page at the back of the book. Answer the questions on it and write a second draft if necessary. Tear the page out of the book and bling it with your paragraph to class. Step 3 Exchange papers with a classmate and check each other's paragraph using Peer-Editing Worksheet 1 on page It is on the back side of the Self-Editing Worksheet.

After your classmate has completed the checklist, discuss it with him or her and decide what changes you should make. Step 4 At home or in class as your instructor directs , write a final copy of your paragraph, making any improvements you discussed with your peer editor. Step 5 Hand in your first draft, your second draft, and the page containing the two editing worksheets. These assignments give you practice in thinking and wliting quickly,-as you will have to do for essay examinations.

Your instmctor may choose to change the time Writing under Pressure limit or assign other topics depending on the needs and interests of the class. Choose one of the suggested topics and write a well-organized paragraph. Your instructor will give you a time limit. Try to use a specific example to support your topic sentence.

Unity means that a paragraph discusses one and only one main idea from beginning to end. For example, if your paragraph is about the advantages of owning a compact car, discuss only that.

Do not discuss the disadvantages. Furthermore, discuss only one advantage, such as gas economy, in each paragraph. If you begin to discuss another advantage, start a new paragraph. Sometimes it is possible to discuss more than one aspect of the same idea in one paragraph if they are closely related to each other.

For example, you could discuss gas economy and low maintenance costs in the same paragraph because they are closely related, but you should not discuss both gas economy and easier parking in the same paragraph because they are not closely related. The second part of unity is that every supporting sentence must directly explain or prove the main idea.

The three paragraphs that follow all discuss the same topic. Only one of them shows unity. First read the paragraphs. Then answer these questions. Which paragraph has unity? Which paragraph does not have unity because it discusses two different topics?

Which paragraph does not have unity because it has sentences that are not related to the main topic? Paragraph 1 Effects of Color Colors create biological reactions in our bodies. These reactions, in turn, can change our behavior. In one study, prisoners were put in a pink room, and they underwent a drastic and measurable decrease in muscle strength and hostility within 2. In another study, athletes needing shortbW: Their muscle strength increased by Athletes needing more endurance for longer performances responded best when exposed to blue light.

Other studies have shown that the color green is calming. Green was a sacred color to the Egyptians, representing the hope and joy of spring. It is also a sacred color to Moslems. Many mosques and religious temples throughout the world use green the color of renewal and growth and blue the color of heaven to balance heavenly peace with spiritual growth. To sum up, color influences us in many ways Daniels In another study, athletes needing short bursts of energy were exposed to red light.

After London's Blackfriars Bridge was painted green, the number of suicides decreased by 34 percent. These and other studies clearly demonstrate that color affects not only our moods but our behavior as well Daniels IDaniels, Amanda. In one study, athletes needing short bursts of energy were exposed to red light. Blue is not a good color for dinnerware, however. Food looks less appetizing when it is served on blue plates, perhaps because very few foods in nature are of that color.

After London's Blackfriars Bridge was painted green, the number of suicides from it decreased by 34 percent. It is clear that color affects not just our moods, but our behavior as well Daniels Both of the following paragraphs break the rule of unity because they contain one or more sentences that are off the topic. Step 1 Locate and underline the topic sentence of each paragraph.

Step 2 Cross out the sentence or sentences that are off the topic.

Paragraph 1 Adventure travel is the hot trend in the tourism industry. Ordinary people are no longer content to spend their two weeks away from the office resting on a sunny beach in Florida. More and more often, they are choosing to spend their vacations rafting down wild rivers, hiking through steamy rain forests, climbing the world's highest mountains, or crossing slippery glaciers. J People of all ages are choosing educational study tours for their vacations. Paragraph 2 DaredevW sports are also becoming popular.

Young people especially are increasingly willing to risk life and limb3 while mountain biking, backcountry snowboarding, or high-speed skateboarding. Soccer is also popular in the United States now, although football is still more popular. One of the riskiest new sports is skysurfing, in which people jump out of airplanes with boards attached to their feet. Skysurfing rivals4 skydiving and bungee jumping for the amount of thrills- and risk. Both of the following paragraphs not only have sentences that are off the topic but also discuss two or more topics.

Step 1 Decide where each paragraph should be divided into two paragraphs. Underline the topic sentence of each. Step 2 Find sentence s that are off the topic and cross them out. The question is-which language?

Because the Internet grew up in the United States, the largest percentage of its content is now in English. Bill Gates, Microsoft's president, believes that English will remain valuable for a long time as a common language for international communication.

He says, "Unless you read English passably well, you miss out on some of the Internet experience. That day is decades away, however, because flawless machine translation is a very tough problem. Computer spelling checkers also exist for various languages. Software that does crudes translations already exists.

It is useful if all you are trying to do is understand the general idea of something you see on your computer screen. However, if you are trying to negotiate a contract or discuss a scientific subject where details are important, machine translation is totally useless Gates. For example, when someone offers you food or a beverage in the United States, accept it the first time it is offered.

If you say, "No, thank you" because it is polite to decline the first one or two offers in your culture, you could become very hungry and thirsty in the United States.

There, a host thinks that "no" means "no" and will usually not offer again. Meals in the United States are usually more informal than meals in other countries, and the times of meals may be different. Although North Americans are usually very direct in social matters, there are a few occasions when they are not.

If a North American says, "Please drop by sometime," he mayor may not want you to visit him in his home. Your clue that this may not be a real invitation is the word "sometime. In other areas of the United States, however, "dropping by" is a friendly, neighborly gesture. Idioms are often difficult for newcomers to understand. Coherence Another element of a good paragraph is coherence. The Latin verb cohere means "hold together. There must be no sudden jumps.

Each sentence should flow smoothly into the next one. Syndicated column, Repeat key nouns. Use consistent pronouns. Use transition signals to link ideas. Arrange your ideas in logical order. Repetition The easiest way to achieve coherence is to repeat key nouns frequently in your para- ofKe!Print book: In the preceding sections, you learned what you can expect from your courses and identified strategies you can use to manage your work and to succeed.

Step 1 Decide what main idea the graph illustrates, and write this idea as a topic sentence. Talk through your ideas with other students when studying or when preparing for a writing assignment.

These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. We usually do not notice we are doing this because we enjoy learning and thinking about it. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all. You also may like to try some of these bookshops , which may or may not sell this item.

A good introductory writing course will help you swim. Yixuan Ma, a well-known astrophysicist who has been studying black holes, said they are the most interesting phenomena we astrophysicists have ever studied.

NICKOLE from Victorville
I enjoy jaggedly. Review my other articles. I am highly influenced by bottle pool.